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Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (Ratification) Act 1995
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Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (Ratification) Act 1995
Commencement: 14 August 1995
REPUBLIC OF VANUATU
CONVENTION OF THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS
OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (RATIFICATION) ACT
NO. 3 OF 1995
REPUBLIC OF VANUATU
CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (RATIFICATION) ACT
NO. 3 OF 1995
An Act to provide for the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
BE IT ENACTED by the President and Parliament as follows: -
- (1) The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women adopted by the United Nations General Assembly
on 18 December, 1979 which is set out in the Schedule hereto is hereby ratified.
- (2) The Convention referred to in subsection (1) shall be binding on the Republic of Vanuatu in accordance with the terms thereof.
2. This Act shall come into force on the date of its publication in the Gazette.
CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL
FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN
The States Parties to the present Convention,
Noting that the Charter of the United Nations reaffirms faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person
and in the equal rights of men and women,
Noting that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms the principle of the inadmissibility of discrimination and proclaims
that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms
set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, including distinction based on sex,
Noting that the States Parties to the International Covenants on Human Rights have the obligation to ensure the equal right of men
and women to enjoy all economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights,
Considering the international conventions concluded under the auspices of the United Nations and the specialized agencies promoting
equality of rights of men and women,
Noting also the resolutions, declarations and recommendations adopted by the United Nations and the specialized agencies promoting
equality of rights of men and women,
Concerned, however, that despite these various instruments extensive discrimination against women continues to exist,
Recalling that discrimination against women violates the principles of equality of rights and respect for human dignity, is an obstacle
to the participation of women, on equal terms with men, in the political, social, economic and cultural life of their countries,
hampers the growth of the prosperity of society and the family and makes more difficult the full development of the potentialities
of women in the service of their countries and of humanity,
Concerned that in situations of poverty women have the least access to food, health, education, training and opportunities for employment
and other needs,
Convinced that the establishment of the new international economic order based on equality and justice will contribute significantly
towards the promotion of equality between mean and women,
Emphasizing that the eradication of apartheid, or all forms of racism, racial discrimination, colonialism, neo-colonialism, aggression,
foreign occupation and domination and interference in the internal affairs of States is essential to the full enjoyment of the rights
of men and women,
Affirming that the strengthening of international peace and security, relaxation of tension, mutual co-operation among all States
irrespective of the social and economic systems, general and complete disarmament, and in particular nuclear disarmament under strict
and effective international control, the affirmation of the principles of justice, equality and mutual benefit in relations among
countries and the realization of the right of peoples under alien and colonial domination and foreign occupation to self-determination
and independence, as well as respect for national sovereignty and territorial integrity, will promote social progress and development
and as a consequence will contribute to the attainment of full equality between men and women,
Convinced that the full and complete development of a country, the welfare of the world and the cause of peace require the maximum
participation of women on equal terms with men in all fields,
Bearing in mind the great contribution of women to the welfare of the family and to the development of society, so far not fully recognized,
the social significance of maternity and the role of both parents in the family and in the upbringing of children, and aware that
the role of women in procreation should not be a basis for discrimination by that the upbringing of children requires a sharing of
responsibility between men and women and society as a whole,
Aware that a change in the traditional role of men as well as the role of women in society and in the family is needed to achieve
full equality between men and women,
Determined to implement the principles set forth in the Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and, for that
purpose, to adopt the measures required for the elimination of such discrimination in all its forms and manifestations,
Have agreed the following:
For the purposes of the present Convention, the term “discrimination against women” shall mean any distinction, exclusion
or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women,
irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political,
economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.
States Parties condemn discrimination against women in all its forms, agree to pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a
policy of eliminating discrimination against women and, to this end, undertake:
(a) To embody the principle of the equality of men and women in their national constitutions or other appropriate legislation if
not yet incorporated therein and to ensure, through law and other appropriate means, the practical realization of this principle;
(b) To adopt appropriate legislative and other measures, including sanctions where appropriate, prohibiting all discrimination against
(c) To establish legal protection of the rights of women on an equal basis with men and to ensure through competent national tribunals
and other public institutions the effective protection of women against any act of discrimination;
(d) To refrain from engaging in any act of practice of discrimination against women and to ensure that public authorities and other
institutions shall act in conformity with this obligation;
(e) To take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women by any person, organization or enterprise;
(f) To take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices
which constitute discrimination against women;
(g) To repeal all national penal provisions which constitute discrimination against women.
States Parties shall take in all fields, in particular in the political, social, economic and cultural fields, all appropriate measures,
including legislation, to ensure the full development and advancement of women, for the purposes of guaranteeing them the exercise
and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms on a basis of equality with men.
- Adoption by States of temporary special measures aimed at accelerating de facto equality between men and women shall not be considered
discrimination as defined in the present Convention, but shall in no way entail as a consequence the maintenance of unequal or separate
standards, these measures shall be discontinued when the objectives of equality of opportunity and treatment have been achieved.
- Adoption by States Parties of special measures, including those measures contained in the present Convention, aimed at protecting
maternity shall not be considered discriminatory.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures:
(a) To modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women, with a view to achieving the elimination of prejudices
and customary an all other practices which are based on the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes or
on stereotyped roles of men and women;
(b) To ensure that family education includes a proper understanding of maternity as a social function and the recognition of the
common responsibility of men and women in the upbringing and development of their children, it being understood that the interest
of the children is the primordial consideration in all cases.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress all forms of traffic in women and exploitation
of prostitution of women.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the political and public life of the
country and, in particular, shall ensure to women, on equal terms with men, the right:
(a) To vote in all elections and public referenda and to be eligible for election to all publicly elected bodies;
(b) To participate in the formulation of government policy and the implementation thereof and to hold public office and perform all
public functions at all levels of government;
(c) To participate in non-governmental organizations and associations concerned with the public and political life of the country.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure to women, on equal terms with men and without any discrimination, the
opportunity to represent their Governments at the international level and to participate in the work of international organizations.
- States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men to acquire, change or retain their nationality. They shall ensure in particular
that neither marriage to an alien nor change of nationality by the husband during marriage shall automatically change the nationality
of the wife, render her stateless or force upon her the nationality of her husband.
- States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in order to ensure to them equal rights
with men in the field of education and in particular to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:
(a) The same conditions for career and vocational guidance, for access to studies and for the achievement of diplomas in educational
establishments of all categories in rural as well as in urban areas, this equality shall be ensured in pre-school, general, technical,
professional and higher technical education, as well as in all types of vocational training;
(b) Access to the same curricular, the same examinations, teaching staff with qualifications of the same standard and school premises
and equipment of the same quality;
(c) The elimination of any stereotyped concept of the roles of men and women at all levels and in all forms of education by encouraging
coeducation and other types of education which will help to achieve this aim and, in particular, by the revision of textbooks and
school programmes and the adaptation of teaching methods;
(d) The same opportunities to benefit from scholarships and other study grants;
(e) The same opportunities for access to programmes of continuing education, including adult and functional literacy programmes,
particularly those aimed at reducing, at the earliest possible time, any gap in education existing between men and women;
(f) The reduction of female student drop-out rates and the organization of programmes for girls and women who have left school prematurely;
(g) The same opportunities to participate actively in sports and physical education;
(h) Access to specific educational information to help to ensure the health and well-being of families, including information and
advice on family planning.
- States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of employment in order to
ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, the same rights, in particular:
- (a) The right to work as an inalienable right of all human beings;
- (b) The right to the same employment opportunities, including the application of the same criteria for selection in matters of employment;
- (c) The right to free choice of profession and employment, the right to promotion, job security and all benefits and conditions of
service and the right to receive vocational training and retraining, including apprenticeships, advanced vocational training and
- (d) The right to equal remuneration, including benefits, and to equal treatment in respect of work of equal as well as equality of
treatment in the evaluation of the quality of work;
- (e) The right of social security, particularly in cases of retirement, unemployment, sickness, invalidity and old age and other incapacity
to work, as well as the right to paid leave;
- (f) The right to protection of health and to safety in working conditions, including the safeguard to the function of reproduction.
- In order to prevent discrimination against women on the grounds of marriage or maternity and to ensure their effective right to work,
States Parties shall take appropriate measures:
- (a) To prohibit, subject to the imposition of sanctions, dismissal on the grounds of pregnancy or of maternity leave and discrimination
in dismissals on the basis of marital status;
- (b) To introduce maternity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits without loss of former employment, seniority or social
- (c) To encourage the provision of the necessary supporting social services to enable parents to combine family obligations with work
responsibilities and participation in public life, in particular through promoting the establishment and development of a network
of child-care facilities;
- (d) To provide special protection to women during pregnancy in types of work proved to be harmful to them.
- Protective legislation relating to matters covered in this article shall be reviewed periodically in the light of scientific and technological
knowledge and shall be revised, repealed or extended as necessary.
- States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of health care in order
to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, access to health care services, including those related to family planning.
- Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article, States Parties shall ensure to women appropriate services in connection
with pregnancy, confinement and the post-natal period, granting free services where necessary, as well as adequate nutrition during
pregnancy and lactation.
- States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in other areas of economic and social
life in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, the same rights, in particular:
- (a) The right to family benefits;
- (b) The right to bank loans, mortgages and other forms of financial credit;
- (c) The right to participate in recreational activities, sports and all aspects of cultural life.
- States Parties shall take into account the particular problems faced by rural women and the significant roles which rural women play
in the economic survival of their families, including their work in the non-monetized sectors of the economy, and shall take all
appropriate measures to ensure the application of the provisions of this Convention to women in rural areas.
- States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in rural areas in order to ensure, on
a basis of equality of men and women, that they participate in and benefit from rural development and, in particular, shall ensure
to such women the right:
- (a) To participate in the elaboration and implementation of development planning at all levels;
- (b) To have access to adequate health care facilities, including information, counselling and services in family planning;
- (c) To benefit directly from social security programmes;
- (d) To obtain all types of training and education, formal and non-formal, including that relating to functional literacy, as well
as inter alia, the benefit of all community and extension services, in order to increase their technical proficiency;
- (e) To organize self-help groups and co-operatives in order to obtain equal access to economic opportunities through employment or
- (f) To participate in all community activities;
- (g) To have access to agricultural credit and loans, marketing facilities, appropriate technology and equal treatment in land and
agrarian reform as well as in land resettlement schemes;
- (h) To enjoy adequate living conditions, particularly in relation to housing, sanitation, electricity and water supply, transport
- States Parties shall accord to women equality with men before the law.
- States Parties shall accord to women, in civil matters, a legal capacity identical to that of men and the same opportunities to exercise
that capacity. In particular, they shall give women equal rights to conclude contracts and to administer property and shall treat
them equally in all stages of procedure in courts and tribunals.
- States Parties agree that all contracts and all other private instruments of any kind with legal effect which is directed at restricting
the legal capacity of women shall be deemed null and void.
- States Parties shall accord to men and women the same rights with regard to law relating to the movement of persons and the freedom
to choose their residence and domicile.
- States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and
family relations and in particular shall ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:
- (a) The same right to enter into marriage;
- (b) The same right freely to choose a spouse and to enter into marriage only with their free and full consent;
- (c) The same rights and responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution;
- (d) The same rights and responsibilities as parents, irrespective of their marital status, in matters relating to their children,
in all cases the interests of the children shall be paramount;
- (e) The same rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information,
education and means to enable them to exercise these rights;
- (f) The same rights and responsibilities with regard to guardianship, wardship, trusteeship and adoption of children, or similar institutions
where these concepts exist in national legislation, in all cases the interests of the children shall be paramount;
- (g) The same personal right as husband and wife, including the rights to choose a family name, a profession and an occupation;
- (h) The same rights for both spouses in respect of ownership, acquisition, management administration, enjoyment and disposition of
property, whether free of charge or for a valuable consideration.
- The betrothal and marriage of a child shall have no legal effect, and all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken
to specify a minimum age for marriage and to make the registration of marriages in an official registry compulsory.
- For the purposes of considering the progress made in the implementation of the present Convention, there shall be established a Committee
on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (hereinafter referred to as the Committee) consisting, at the time of entry into
force of the Convention, of eighteen and, after ratification of or accession to the Convention by the thirty-fifth State Party, of
twenty-three experts of high moral standing and competence in the field covered by the Convention. The experts shall be elected
by States Parties from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to equitable geographical
distribution and to the representation of the different forms of civilization as well as the principle legal systems.
- The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by States Parties. Each State Party
may nominate one person from among its own nationals.
- The initial election shall be held six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Convention. At least three months
before the date of each election the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to the States Parties inviting
them to submit their nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons
thus nominated, indicating the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties.
- Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United
Nations Headquarters. At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected
to the Committee shall be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives
of States Parties present and voting.
- The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. However, the terms of nine of the members elected at the
first elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years, immediately after the first election the names of these
nine members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the Committee.
- The election of the five additional members of the Committee shall be held in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 2, 3, and
4 of this article, following the thirty-firth ratification or accession. The terms of two of the additional members elected on this
occasion shall expire of the end of two years, the names of these two members having been chosen by lot by the Chairman of the Committee.
- For the filling of casual vacancies, the State Party whose expert has ceased to function as a member of the Committee shall appoint
another expert from among its nations, subject to the approval of the Committee.
- The members of the Committee shall, with the approval of the General Assembly, receive emoluments from the United Nations resources
on such terms and conditions as the Assembly may decide, having regard to the importance of the Committee’s responsibilities.
- The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the
functions of the Committee under the present Convention.
- States Parties undertake to submit to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, for consideration by the Committee, a report on
the legislative, judicial administrative or other measures which they have adopted to give effect to the provisions of the present
Convention and on the progress made in this respect:
- (a) Within a year after the entry into force for the State concerned; and
- (b) Thereafter at least every four years and further whenever the Committee so requests.
- Reports may indicate factors and difficulties affecting the degree of fulfilment of obligations under the present Convention.
- The Committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure.
- The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years.
- The Committee shall normally meet for a period of not more than two weeks annually in order to consider the reports submitted in accordance
with article 18 of the present Convention.
- The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters or at any other convenient place as determined
by the Committee.
- The Committee shall, through the Economic and Social Council, report annually to the General Assembly of the United Nations on its
activities and may make suggestions and general recommendations based on the examination of reports and information received from
the States Parties. Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be included in the report of the Committee together with
comments, if any, from States Parties.
- The Secretary-General shall transmit the reports of the Committee to the Commission on the Status of Women for its information.
Nothing in this Convention shall affect any provisions that are more conducive to the achievement of equality between men and women
which may be contained:
(a) In the legislation of a State party; or
(b) In any other international convention, treaty or agreement in force for that State.
States Parties undertake to adopt all necessary measures at the national level aimed at achieving the full realization of the rights
recognized in the present Convention.
- The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.
- The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the depositary of the present Convention.
- The present Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the
- The present Convention shall be open to accession by all States. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession
with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
- A request for the revision of the present Convention may be made at anytime by any State Party by means of a notification in writing
addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
- The General Assembly of the United Nations shall decide up on the steps, if any, to be taken in respect of such a request.
- The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United
Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.
- For each State ratifying the present Convention or acceding to it after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or
accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification
- The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States the text of reservations made by States at the
time of ratification or accession.
- A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be permitted.
- Reservations may be withdrawn at anytime by notification to this effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations,
who shall then inform all States thereof. Such notification shall take effect on the date on which it is received.
- Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention which is not
settled by negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration. If within six months from the date of
the request for arbitration the parties are unable to agree on the organization of the arbitration, anyone of those parties may refer
the dispute to the International Court of Justice by request in conformity with the Statute of the Court.
- Each State Party may at the time of signature or ratification of this Convention or accession thereto declare that it does not consider
itself bound by paragraph 1 of this article. The other States Parties shall not be bound by that paragraph with respect to any State
Party which has made such a reservation.
- Any State Party which has made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article may at anytime withdraw that reservation
by notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
The present Convention, the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish tests of which are equally authentic, shall be deposited
with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.